Wednesday, August 26, 2020

PharmGKB and CPIC Partner with ClinGen

PharmGKB and CPIC have formalized a partnership with ClinGen to bring pharmacogenomics (PGx) expertise to the primarily disease-focused, NIH-funded mega-resource.  ClinGen's goals include defining the clinical relevance of genes and variants for use in precision medicine and research and disseminating that knowledge to the broader community.  They have developed and implemented data standards for clinical annotation and interpretation of genes and variants. To date, this annotation and interpretation has focused on disease-related genes and variants. The partnership with PharmGKB and CPIC was established to bring PGx knowledge to the ClinGen community.  Gene-level PGx entries which link to PharmGKB and CPIC will be added to the current validation, dosage and actionability curations displayed on ClinGen so that users will be able to access the PharmGKB and CPIC resources through the ClinGen interface.  Planning is underway for the PGx display. Additionally, PharmGKB is working to provide links back to ClinGen for genes and variants associated with disease phenotypes.

Tuesday, August 11, 2020

New CPIC Guideline: CYP2C19 and Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs)

The CPIC Guideline for CYP2C19 and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) dosing is now published in Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. The accepted article can be accessed on the PharmGKB page for omeprazolelansoprazolepantoprazoledexlansoprazole, and on the CPIC website. 

PPIs inhibit the final pathway of acid production, which leads to inhibition of gastric acid secretion. PPIs are widely used in the treatment and prevention of many conditions including gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric and duodenal ulcers, erosive esophagitis, H. pylori infection, and pathological hypersecretory conditions. The first-generation inhibitors omeprazole, lansoprazole and pantoprazole are extensively metabolized by the cytochrome P450 isoform CYP2C19 and to a lesser extent by CYP3A4. The second-generation PPI dexlansoprazole appears to share a similar metabolic pathway to lansoprazole. CYP2C19 genotypes have been linked to PPI exposure and in turn to PPI efficacy and adverse effects.

The CPIC guideline summarizes evidence from the literature and provides therapeutic recommendations for omeprazolelansoprazolepantoprazoledexlansoprazole based on CYP2C19 genotype. For therapeutic recommendations and further details, please refer to the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guideline for CYP2C19 and Proton Pump Inhibitor Dosing.

Monday, August 10, 2020

CYP3A5 released on PharmVar

PharmVar and PharmGKB are excited to announce that CYP3A5 has been transitioned into the PharmVar database. Variation information has been extensively curated by the PharmVar CYP3A5 gene experts which led to the correction of some allele definitions or reclassification of others. The submission of new data added novel suballeles, as well as helped to raise the evidence levels for several alleles from ‘Lim’ to ‘Def’. Important CYP3A5 information is provided in the ‘Read Me’ document such as reference sequences used and how the PharmVar CAVE tool facilitates comparisons of core allele definitions. All changes and revisions have been summarized in the ‘Change Log’ document. Here we also list all new haplotypes. Check it out at

And finally, a big thank you to all of the CYP3A5 gene experts who serve on this panel for their hard work.